The "Piston" Effect


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Table of Contents

The “Piston” Effect

Reference to Peer-Reviewed Paper

The 1-Hour Ozone Standard

8-Hour Standard

Emission Control Strategy Approach


Investigating the Rate of Decline of Ozone Concentrations

Greater Resistance to Reducing the Mid Range of Concentrations

Changes in O3 Reduction Rate - 1

Changes in O3 Reduction Rate - 2

The Implications of the Slowing Down Observation

A Possible Scenario

The Slowing of Progress

EPA Acknowledges the “Piston Effect”


Future Research Efforts

Author: Allen S. Lefohn, Ph.D.
A.S.L. & Associates, Helena, Montana


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