Company Experience
Staff Experience

Assess the Scientific Rationale for Ozone and Other Air Pollution Standards

Complete List of Scientific Topics in
Table of Contents

Predict Air Quality Exposures Spatially


Provide Maps that Identify Air Pollution Violation Areas

Develop Global Sulfur Emission Estimates

Download Actual Data

Develop Exposure- Dose-Response Relationships

Human Health

Develop Ozone Exposure Metrics for Protecting Vegetation

The W126 Ozone Index

Characterize Ambient Air Quality Data 

Biologically Meaningful Characterization

Assess Possible Impacts on Natural Vegetation Areas

Estimate Background Concentrations and How They Affect The Determination of Ozone Standards

Characterize Ozone Trends in the United States and Worldwide Background Ozone Signature Monitoring Sites

Critically Evaluate the Limitations of Epidemiological Methodology

Quantify the Co-Occurrence of Air Pollutants Under Ambient Conditions

Collect and Make Available Albert Einstein Quotes

Photograph the Performing Arts

Publish over 125 Peer-Review Papers

A Sampling

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Ozone trends analyses of anthropogenically influenced monitoring sites in the United States and on worldwide background ozone monitoring sites   Read the introductory materials and begin the process of better understanding how the science is integrated with the standard-setting processes
Grading the National Parks for ozone (smog) for 2015-2017   Learn about the effects of ozone on biological systems and how to characterize hourly averaged ozone concentrations in biologically meaningful terms
Background ozone and its influence on the setting of the US EPA's ozone standards   Bridging the gap between ozone exposure and ozone dose: The importance of high hourly average concentrations and "effective" dose
The use of different exposure metrics for human health and vegetation give different trend patterns when same hourly data are used   Learn about background ozone levels and why theoretical modeling estimates underestimate actual background concentrations
  Description of the W126 cumulative exposure index.     Co-occurrence patterns of ozone, sulfur dioxide, daily PM-2.5, and nitrogen dioxide
  Additional considerations involving the W126 exposure index for protecting vegetation.     A summary of concerns about the methodology utilized in the epidemiological studies for PM
  Dr. Lefohn's December 2, 2019 comments submitted to the Federal Docket on EPA's Integrated Science Assessment Ozone document.     Dr. Lefohn's December 16, 2019 comments submitted to the Federal Docket on EPA's Policy Assessment Ozone document.
  Dr. Lefohn's October 1, 2020 comments submitted to the Federal Docket on EPA's Proposed Primary and Secondary Ozone Standards     Dr. Lefohn's December 14, 2021 comments submitted to the Federal Docket on EPA's Policy Assessment for the Reconsideration of the National Ambient Air Quality Standards for PM document
  Dr. Lefohn's May 30, 2022 comments submitted to the Federal Docket on EPA's Policy Assessment Ozone document on the Reconsideration of the Ozone Standards.        

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  It is not clear that reducing ozone-causing emissions will result in the attainment of the ozone standard as the level of the standard continues to be lowered   Review the latest sulfur dioxide, ozone, PM-10, PM-2.5, carbon monoxide, lead, and other maps
  Why a new human health standard may be needed to protect the public from ozone     Review the maps for all of the US EPA's criteria pollutant standards

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Spring in Montana

Grizzly Bear

the Performing Arts

Portfolio 1 - US Symphony
Portfolio 2 - NZ Symphony
Portfolio 3 - Ballet
Portfolio 4 - Arts in Motion

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A.S.L. & Associates, LLC
P.O. Box 196
Clancy, Montana 59634

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Updated March 28, 2023
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